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Action philosophy Agency is contrasted to objects reacting to natural forces involving only unthinking deterministic processes. In this respect, agency is subtly distinct from the concept of free willthe philosophical doctrine that our choices are not the product of causal chains, but are significantly free or undetermined.
Human agency entails the claim that humans do in fact make decisions and enact them on the world. How humans come to make decisions, by free choice or other processes, is another issue.
The capacity of a human to act as an agent is personal to that human, though considerations of the outcomes flowing from particular acts of human agency for us and others can then be thought to invest a moral component into a given situation wherein an agent has acted, and thus to involve moral agency.
If a situation is the consequence of human decision making, persons may be under a duty to apply value judgments to the consequences of their decisions, and held to be responsible for those decisions. Human agency entitles the observer to ask should this have occurred?
In philosophy[ edit ] The philosophical discipline in charge of studying agency is action theory. In certain philosophical traditions particularly those established by Hegel and Marxhuman agency is a collective, historical dynamic, rather than a function arising out of individual behavior.
Hegel's Geist and Marx's universal class are idealist and materialist expressions of this idea of humans treated as social beings, organized to act in concert. Also look at the debate, philosophically derived in part from the works of Humebetween determinism and indeterminacy. Structure and agency forms an enduring core debate in sociology.
Essentially the same as in the Marxist conception, "agency" refers to the capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free choices, based on their will, whereas "structure" refers to those factors such as social class, but also religion, gender, ethnicity, subculture, etc.
In other sciences[ edit ] In economics contract theory: Economic agency is an internal instrumentality through which external influences operate mechanistically on action.
Internal agency events are a reflection of the impact of external environments from which causal attributes are ignored, and the self-system is simply a repository and conduit for environmental forces.
The term of agency used in different fields of psychology with different meaning. It can refer to the ability of recognizing agents or attributing agency to objects based on simple perceptual cues or principles, for instance the principle of rationality,   which holds that context-sensitive, goal-directed efficient actions are the crucial characteristics of agents.
This topic is thoroughly investigated by developmental and comparative psychologists to understand how an observer is able to differentiate agentive entities from inanimate objects, but it can be also related to the term of autonomous intelligent agency used in cybernetics.
Agency can also imply the sense of agencythat is the feeling of being in control. Emergent interactive agency defines Bandura's view of agencies, where human agency can be exercised through direct personal agency.
People have the power to influence their own actions to produce certain results. Autonomous agency is able to embrace the concepts of both the economic agency and the emergent interactive agency. An autonomous system is self-directed, operating in, and being influenced by, interactive environments.
It usually has its own immanent dynamics that impact on the way it interacts. It is also adaptable and hence viable thus having a durable existenceproactive, self-organizing, self-regulating and so forth, participates in creating its own behaviour, and contributes to its life circumstances through cognitive and cultural functionality.
Autonomous agency may also be concerned with the relationship between two or more agencies in a mutual relationship with each other and their environments, with imperatives for an agency's behaviour within an interactive context due to immanent emergent attributes.Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids.
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CSU Extension - A division of the Office of Engagement. Providing trusted, practical education to help you solve problems, develop skills and build a better future. In the corporate finance tradition, starting with Berle and Means (), corporations should generally be run to maximize shareholder pfmlures.com agency view of corporate social responsibility (CSR) considers CSR an agency problem and a waste of corporate resources.