References Introduction Throughout History humans have looked to the sky to navigate the vast oceans, to decide when to plant their crops and to answer questions of where we came from and how we got here. It is a discipline that opens our eyes, gives context to our place in the Universe and that can reshape how we see the world. When Copernicus claimed that Earth was not the centre of the Universe, it triggered a revolution. A revolution through which religion, science, and society had to adapt to this new world view.
One informal analysis suggests short first names are strongly correlated with higher salaries. They are bad in several ways, and modern glyphs are little better.
For example, v and w, or m and n. People confuse them all the time, both in reading and in writing. Even though they share relatively few pixels, they are still identical under rotation, and we can see that. We could confuse them if we were reading upside down, or at an angle, or just confuse them period.
OK, so we now have a set of unique and dissimilar glyphs that are unambiguous about their orientation. Well, we might want them to be easy to write as well as read.
How do we define easy to write? We could have a complicated physiological model about what strokes can easily follow what movements and so on, but we will cop out and say: Rather than unwritable pixels in a grid, our primitives will be little geometric primitives.
The fewer the primitives and the closer to integers or common fractions the positioning of said primitives, the simpler and the better. We throw all these rules in, add a random starting population or better yet a population modeled after the existing alphabet, and begin our genetic algorithm.
What 26 glyphs will we get? Dehaene describes some fascinating and convincing evidence for the first kind of innateness. In one of the most interesting chapters, he argues that the shapes we use to make written letters mirror the shapes that primates use to recognize objects.
After all, I could use any arbitrary squiggle to encode the sound at the start of Tree instead of a T. But actually the shapes of written symbols are strikingly similar across many languages. It turns out that T shapes are important to monkeys, too. When a monkey sees a T shape in the world, it is very likely to indicate the edge of an object - something the monkey can grab and maybe even eat.
A particular area of its brain pays special attention to those important shapes.
Human brains use the same area to process letters. Dehaene makes a compelling case that these brain areas have been recycled We did not invent most of our letter shapes, he writes.
They lay dormant in our brains for millions of years, and were merely rediscovered when our species invented writing and the alphabet. But who is to say that a butterfly could not dream of a man?
You are not the butterfly to say so! Better to ask what manner of beast could dream of a man dreaming a butterfly, and a butterfly dreaming a man. This is a reasonable objection. But it is rarely proffered by people really familiar with IQ, who also rarely respond to it.
I believe they have an intuitive understanding that IQ is a percentile ranking, not an absolute measurement.
IQ is ordinal, not cardinal. It is plausible that the 20 points separating and represents far more cognitive power and ability than that separating andor and And if retarded kids are closer to Einstein that the smartest non-human animal, that indicates human intelligence is very narrowand that there is a vast spectrum of stupidity stretching below us all the way down to viruses which only learn through evolution.
Current IQ tests are designed for, tested against, and normed on fine distinctions among humans. It is very hard to test animal intelligence because of differing incentives and sensory systems, but if one deals with those problems, there ought to be some general intelligence of prediction and problem solving; the approach I favor is AIXI-style IQ tests.
A gap like 20 points looks very impressive from our narrow compressed human perspective, but it reflects very little absolute difference; to a sheep, other sheep are each distinctive.
In Big O computer terms, we might say that geniuses are a constant factor faster than their dimmer brethren, but not asymptotically faster. The practical impact of a few factors out of thousands may be minimal, and explain the findings without denying the existence of such differences.aforementioned project to research different avenues for improving the efficiency of solar photovoltaic power system from the solar cell level to the solar array mounting, array tracking and DC-AC inversion system techniques.
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOLAR TRACKER USING ARDUINO WITH SERVOMOTOR The following is a brief description of the papers that were studied to understand about solar tracker. In constructing the solar tracking system, LDRs are used to determine solar light intensity.
The effective methods of capturing the full potential are critically analyzed and studied. A solar tracking system was designed with active tracking systems in both directions viz.
east to west, north to south. The design was critically examined from various parameters and a . In the solution there is a dual-axis solar tracking system, based on solar maps, which can predict the exact apparent position of the sun, by latitude location, thereby avoiding the need to use sensors or guidance systems (Abdallah and Nijmeh ).
The team at Ghent University in Belgium say their technique could also be applied in rural areas and developing countries where fertilisers and reliable drinking water are short in supply.