Female mutilation

Various terms have been used to refer to this procedure: This section is translated into Polish at: Various sources estimate that from about 60 to million women in the world have had their genitals mutilated or cut.

Female mutilation

Sometimes genital tissue is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing both immediate and long-term risks; psychological problems depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.

Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk for FGM annually.

More than million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated 1. The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries the Middle East and Asia, as well as among migrants from these areas.

FGM is therefore a global concern. Cultural and social factors for performing FGM The reasons why female genital mutilations are performed vary from one region to another as well as over time, and include a mix of sociocultural factors within families and communities. The most commonly cited reasons are: Where FGM is a social convention social normthe social pressure to conform to what others do and have been doing, as well as the need to be accepted socially and the fear of being rejected by the community, are strong motivations to perpetuate the practice.

In some communities, FGM is almost universally performed and unquestioned. FGM is often considered a necessary part of raising a girl, and a way to prepare her for adulthood and marriage.

FGM is often motivated by beliefs about what is considered acceptable sexual behaviour. It aims to ensure premarital virginity and marital fidelity. FGM is in many communities believed to reduce a woman's libido and therefore believed to help her resist extramarital sexual acts.

When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed type 3the fear of the pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage extramarital sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM. Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out.

FGM is associated with cultural ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the notion that girls are clean and beautiful after removal of body parts that are considered unclean, unfeminine or male. Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support.

Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to FGM: Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice.

In most societies, where FGM is practised, it is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation. In some societies, recent adoption of the practice is linked to copying the traditions of neighbouring groups. Sometimes it has started as part of a wider religious or traditional revival movement.

Sincegreat efforts have been made to counteract FGM, through research, work within communities, and changes in public policy. Progress at international, national and sub-national levels includes: Research shows that, if practicing communities themselves decide to abandon FGM, the practice can be eliminated very rapidly.

InWHO together with 9 other United Nations partners, issued a statement on the elimination of FGM to support increased advocacy for its abandonment, called: This statement provided evidence collected over the previous decade about the practice of FGM.

InWHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female genital mutilation" in collaboration with other key UN agencies and international organizations. In Decemberthe UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the elimination of female genital mutilation.

Building on a previous report fromin UNICEF launched an updated report documenting the prevalence of FGM in 30 countries, as well as beliefs, attitudes, trends, and programmatic and policy responses to the practice globally. The guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of the best available evidence on health interventions for women living with FGM.

To ensure the effective implementation of the guidelines, WHO is developing tools for front-line health-care workers to improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills of health care providers in preventing and managing the complications of FGM.

WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on:Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female pfmlures.com practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.

More than million women and girls, according to the World Health Organization, have suffered female genital mutilation. FGM is usually inflicted on girls from infancy to age The practice is mainly centered in 30 countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, but FGM cases have been reported in the United States in recent years.

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a procedure where the female genitals are deliberately cut, injured or changed, but where there's no medical reason for this to be done. It's also known as "female circumcision" or "cutting", and by other terms such as sunna, gudniin, halalays, tahur, megrez and.

Practitioners of female genital mutilation are believed to be entering Canada to perform the illegal procedure on girls, according to intelligence reports distributed to frontline border officers. Cutting the Rose: Female Genital Mutilation: The Practice & Its Prevention (Minority Rights Publications) [Efua Dorkenoo] on pfmlures.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

There is growing international interest in Female Genital Mutilation. This is partly due to the exposure of the subject by human rights activists and organizations and partly due to the emergence of the practice in the.

Introduction.

Female mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons ”.

According to the WHO, it is practiced in 28 countries in Western.

FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION - FEMALE CIRCUMCISION