The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that "peace" seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial.
This essay is derived from a keynote at Xtech. Could you reproduce Silicon Valley elsewhere, or is there something unique about it? It wouldn't be surprising if it were hard to reproduce in other countries, because you couldn't reproduce it in most of the US either. What does it take to make a silicon valley even here?
What it takes is the right people. If you could get the right ten thousand people to move from Silicon Valley to Buffalo, Buffalo would become Silicon Valley. Up till a couple decades ago, geography was destiny for cities.
All great cities were located on waterways, because cities made money by trade, and water was the only economical way to ship. Now you could make a great city anywhere, if you could get the right people to move there.
So the question of how to make a silicon valley becomes: Two Types I think you only need two kinds of people to create a technology hub: They're the limiting reagents in the reaction that produces startups, because they're the only ones present when startups get started.
Everyone else will move. Observation bears this out: Few startups happen in Miami, for example, because although it's full of rich people, it has few nerds.
It's not the kind of place nerds like.
Whereas Pittsburgh has the opposite problem: MIT yielded Route Stanford and Berkeley yielded Silicon Valley. The record skips at that point.
Lower down the list, the University of Washington yielded a high-tech community in Seattle, and the University of Texas at Austin yielded one in Austin.
But what happened in Pittsburgh? And in Ithaca, home of Cornell, which is also high on the list? I grew up in Pittsburgh and went to college at Cornell, so I can answer for both.
The weather is terrible, particularly in winter, and there's no interesting old city to make up for it, as there is in Boston. Rich people don't want to live in Pittsburgh or Ithaca. So while there are plenty of hackers who could start startups, there's no one to invest in them.
Not Bureaucrats Do you really need the rich people? Wouldn't it work to have the government invest in the nerds?
No, it would not. Startup investors are a distinct type of rich people. They tend to have a lot of experience themselves in the technology business. This a helps them pick the right startups, and b means they can supply advice and connections as well as money.
And the fact that they have a personal stake in the outcome makes them really pay attention.
Bureaucrats by their nature are the exact opposite sort of people from startup investors. The idea of them making startup investments is comic.
It would be like mathematicians running Vogue-- or perhaps more accurately, Vogue editors running a math journal. We just don't notice usually, because they only have to compete against other bureaucrats. But as startup investors they'd have to compete against pros with a great deal more experience and motivation.
Even corporations that have in-house VC groups generally forbid them to make their own investment decisions. Most are only allowed to invest in deals where some reputable private VC firm is willing to act as lead investor. Not Buildings If you go to see Silicon Valley, what you'll see are buildings.
But it's the people that make it Silicon Valley, not the buildings. I read occasionally about attempts to set up " technology parks " in other places, as if the active ingredient of Silicon Valley were the office space. Don't the French realize these aren't startups?Following are the topics on which our followers have written (and writing essays) every Sunday to hone their essay writing skills.
The topics are chosen based on UPSC previous year topics. Back in , the Knight-Ridder newspaper chain began investigating piracy of Dave Barry’s popular column, which was published by the Miami Herald and syndicated widely. Often, the hardest words to write in an essay are the opening ones.
When you’re doing the first draft, I’d suggest just writing your way through the introduction without worrying too much – you’ll want to come back to it when you’ve got the body and the conclusion of your essay firmly decided upon.
Apr 12, · Most students doing PTE Academic gets stressed about PTE Essay Topics.. Worrying about getting an unfamiliar topic and not having any good ideas to write about the subject, is making students stressed and nervous.
Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England.
He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award. Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.
The IELTS writing task 2 sample answer below has examiner comments and is band score 9. The topic of social media is common and this IELTS essay question was reported in the IELTS test.